Sunday, October 16, 2005


Formerly  (until 1925) Kolchugino,   city, in Kemerovo oblast (province), central Russia. It lies along the Inya River, a tributary of the Ob. In 1912 a French company started coal-mining operations there; from the 1930s the city developed rapidly to become a major coal-mining centre, with many pits located in the city itself. Other industries produce chemicals, mining machinery, electric lamps, and timber goods. Pop.

Monday, August 08, 2005

Tyrrell, Sir James

Tyrrell fought on the Yorkist side in their victory over the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury

Wednesday, July 27, 2005

Izumi Kyoka

Kyoka was born into a family of provincial artists and artisans, from whom he inherited artistic skill and a deep faith that shaded into an actual belief in mysterious forces. He

Monday, July 25, 2005

Claudius, Matthias

After studying at Jena, Claudius held a series of editorial and minor official positions until in 1788 he acquired a sinecure in the Schleswig-Holstein bank. He edited the Wandsbecker Bote (1771–75), popular not only

Wednesday, July 13, 2005


City, seat of McCracken county, southwestern Kentucky, U.S., at the confluence of the Ohio (there bridged to Brookport, Illinois) and Tennessee rivers. The site, known as Pekin, was part of a grant to soldier and frontiersman George Rogers Clark. At his death his brother William, who was coleader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, received the land, laid out the town in 1827, and named

Friday, July 08, 2005

Ada Group

Ivory carvings and a group of about 10 illuminated manuscripts, dating from the last quarter of the 8th century, the earliest examples of the art of the Court School of Charlemagne. The group is named after a Gospel book (c. 750; Trier, Cathedral Treasury) commissioned by Ada, supposed half sister of Charlemagne. These earliest manuscripts of the Carolingian period, which initiated

Wednesday, July 06, 2005


Any of a series of unmanned U.S. scientific satellites developed to observe cosmic objects from above the Earth's atmosphere. OAO-2, launched Dec. 7, 1968, carried two large telescopes and a complement of spectrometers and other auxiliary devices. It weighed more than 4,200 pounds (1,900 kilograms), the heaviest satellite orbited up to that time. OAO-2 was able to photograph young stars that